Sinking funds or sinking fund is a financial management tool traditionally used to help mitigate the risk of adverse future cash flows. Additionally, it’s usually used by large corporations and government agencies for debt restructuring or in connection with insolvency proceedings.
The goal when using a sinking fund is to accumulate cash available if an asset’s market value declines below its current carrying value. The asset’s carrying value is equal to its fair market value less its immediate expenditures, such as maintenance and depreciation costs, which are financed by a separate account that the company funds separately from operating activities.
An entity usually establishes a sinking fund by issuing bonds or stock and setting aside a percentage of the proceeds from selling these securities for that purpose. Although it’s usually found with money obtained from an independent source, the funds can be borrowed from the entity’s commercial bank.
Governments and corporations use sinking funds to manage debt because it makes financial decisions regarding budgeting for future outlays predictable, which is essential for budgeting purposes. In addition, making payments against long-term obligations helps control short-term cash flow fluctuations in operations. Also, corporate and government entities use them to deal with distressed debts.
Sinking funds can be used to help make loan payments predictable. For example, a corporation or government agency might establish a sinking fund using the proceeds from bonds it has just issued to help pay off a debt. The fund is set up separately from the entity’s operating accounts and collects money over the years. When payments are due on the debt, they’re made out of this account.
The use of sinking funds allows organizations to more accurately predict their future cash flow needs and strengthens their balance sheets by establishing an accounting identity that assets and liabilities add up to net assets at any given time. Sinking funds made an essential step in the evolution of accounting principles known as “objectivity.”
Sinking funds are created when a company sets aside cash or securities to fund a future liability. For example, if a company needs to pay off its debt in ten years, it can set up a sinking fund that collects money over the next ten years. The fund can pay off the debt once it comes due.
Sinking-fund financing was first used by advocates of the English Iron Act of 1843, encouraging iron manufacturers to set up sinking funds for iron plates and other equipment. When Parliament repealed the Iron Act in 1860, these “sinking funds” were allowed to continue on an informal basis.
Storing your sinking funds is very crucial. Sinking funds are also used during foreclosure procedures when a company or government agency is trying to reduce its debt burden. Sinking-fund financing intends to reduce the risk of a drop in asset values and thus protect the loan’s value.
Both the valuation of assets and liabilities within the financial statements can be affected by the use of sinking funds. The value of assets is concerned because, as noted, it’s based on fair market value and less immediate expenditures. Suppose a company has a current help carrying weight on its books and sets up a sinking fund to fund that liability in the future. In that case, it will have an asset carrying value lower than its fair market value because it’ll only have a present value assessment. Similarly, liabilities are calculated using future cash flows. Setting up a sinking fund unfavorably affects these future obligations because they’re discounted to their present values at expiration dates.